Science research – Scientific Library Fri, 03 Jun 2022 05:03:27 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Science research – Scientific Library 32 32 Crowdsourced weather projects boost climate science research Thu, 02 Jun 2022 12:09:25 +0000

Thousands of volunteers, immobilized by the COVID-19 lockdown, recently revived a wealth of historic rainfall records from the UK and Ireland. Manuscript records note the rainfall sightings of landowners, socialites, and an array of enthusiastic citizens dating back to the late 17th century. Computer software cannot yet accurately decode handwriting, so human eyes were essential.

Volunteers looked at millions of rainfall records from across Ireland and the UK as part of the Rainfall Rescue project. This rain sheet tracks rainfall at a weather station at Forbury Gardens in Reading, England. Click on the image for a larger version. Credit: Met Office, DC BY 4.0

researchers with the Rains Rescue Project commissioned volunteers to manually transcribe 3.34 million observations to make the data available to scientists to study Earth’s past climate.

“We expected it to take months,” said Ed Hawkinsclimatologist at the University of Reading and lead author of the recently published study describing the effort. “We did it in 16 days.”

The documents contained enough data to extend detailed weather records back to 1836. In doing so, the researchers capped the driest new year on record for the region: 1855. “We rewrote the record books, if you will said Hawkins, “backward, not forward.

Rescued records inform climate science

High-resolution weather reconstructions combine weather observations with algorithms describing atmospheric physics to iteratively produce a near-hourly estimate of the global climate over the past decades or even centuries. They are a time machine for climatologists looking to assess long-term trends or interrogate past events. Historical data such as that recovered from the UK and Ireland can help validate a reconstruction, said Laura SlivinskyNOAA physicist and co-leader of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project (version 3), which generated a global atmospheric weather dataset covering the period 1836-2015.

Historical data documents some particularly extreme events, and it can help scientists understand why and how such events occur, said Drew Lorey, a climate and environmental scientist at the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand. “It’s really powerful because we can then look in our modern models for similar patterns that increase in the coming months and use that as an early warning system.”

Records from the past decades show that extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. “People have to make decisions now about building resilience to the weather in general and how that weather is changing,” Hawkins said. “We need to know what a 1 in 100 year or 1 in 200 year flood looks like.”

Holes need to be filled

“The further you go back in time, the fewer observations you have, the more work those observations have to do to bring the whole global estimate closer to reality.”

Climate reconstructions rely on a huge database of observations, most of which comes from the decades following the proliferation of satellites. Prior to this date, the data is patchy. “The further you go back in time, the fewer observations you have, the more work those observations have to do to bring the whole global estimate closer to reality,” said Slivinski, who did not participate in the recent study but works with Hawkins and Lorrey. on other projects.

Gaps in climate databases are particularly glaring in the Southern Hemisphere, where there is less land from which to make observations, Lorrey explained. These data rescue efforts are key to closing the gaps, he said.

Lorrey, who did not participate in Rainfall Rescue, leads the Southern Weather Discovery Project, which retrieves early 20th century weather records from stations in New Zealand and Antarctica and logbooks from ships sailing in the Southern Ocean. He and his colleagues described their approach to crowdsourced document scanning in an article published in Grounds. Volunteers have digitized nearly 250,000 sightings of the region to date.

Although data quality is a concern for the Rainfall Rescue and Southern Weather Discovery records, the numbers are strong, said Kevin Trenberg, a climatologist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and lead author of the 2001 and 2007 reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “An observation not made is lost forever,” he said. “And here a lot of sightings have been made.”

A shared experience

Outsourced weather data has benefits beyond science. Rainfall Rescue volunteers took to the project’s forums to talk about interesting notes they found in the archives, such as an entry from World War II that mentioned a bullet hole in the rain gauge. Sharing their experiences helped volunteers feel part of a community, Hawkins said. “There are so many great comments on message boards about people feeling helpful.”

Modern precipitation observers continue to provide valuable data. Ongoing initiatives such as the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) have been collecting precipitation data from volunteers in the United States for more than 20 years. The project gives people an outlet for their weather curiosity, said Melissa Griffinthe South Carolina CoCoRaHS coordinator.

And CoCoRaHS volunteers provide more than just numbers; reports filed during Hurricane Matthew in 2016 include comments about flooded streets and where animals moved to escape rising rivers. This information is valuable for distributing resources in an emergency or for estimating future water resources, Griffin said.

“You know that you provide data to your community and that your community uses [those] data,” she said.

—Jennifer Schmidt (@DrJenGEO), science writer

Quote: Schmidt, J. (2022), Crowdsourced Weather Projects Boost Climate Science Research, Eos, 103, Posted June 2, 2022.
Text © 2022. The authors. CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Unless otherwise stated, images are subject to copyright. Any reuse without the express permission of the copyright holder is prohibited.

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Brown announces more than $600,000 for computer science research at the University of Cincinnati Wed, 01 Jun 2022 16:20:54 +0000

WASHINGTON, DC – Today, U.S. Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH) announced that the National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded the University of Cincinnati a $610,000 grant to improve the failure resolution process mobile applications when a bug is reported by reproducing, creating and generating tests. The techniques developed in this project will be evaluated for their effectiveness in everyday real-world applications.

“Scientific and technological research is critical to create jobs and improve our economy. We unleash more American innovation when everyone is able to participate and we nurture all of Ohio’s talent,” said Brown. “The University of Cincinnati is one of Ohio’s great institutions of higher learning. The award will help the university advance our knowledge and maintain Ohio’s leadership in innovation.

In addition to these grants, Brown also co-sponsored the Early Career Researcher Support Act establish a two-year pilot program at the NSF to award grants to highly qualified early-career researchers at independent research institutions of higher education for up to two years. This will help prevent the loss of research talent due to labor market disruptions caused by the pandemic.

The NSF supports research and education in all non-medical areas of science and engineering.


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Creating Custom Oligonucleotides for Life Science Research Mon, 30 May 2022 08:59:44 +0000

SelectScience speaks with Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT) to learn how the company was able to increase its offering of customizable and robust nucleic acid products to support the life science industry

Naomi Cauwenberghs, Deputy Director of Large Scale Processing at Integrated DNA Technologies

From academic and commercial research to medical diagnostics, pharmaceutical development and synthetic biology, oligonucleotides form the basis of almost all molecular techniques. However, the synthesis of these compound molecules can be incredibly complex, requiring a highly controlled reaction to ensure that factors such as pH, temperature, and substrate quality are tightly regulated. This complexity increases even more when producing longer and more personalized nucleotide sequences.

Naomi Cauwenberghs is Deputy Director of Large-Scale Processing at Integrated DNA Technologies (IDT), a genomics solutions provider and manufacturer of nucleic acid products such as custom oligonucleotides. Cauwenberghs daily role is to oversee the final formulation stage of the entire oligonucleotide production process, lead a team to quantify the final product, prepare quality control samples, interpret quality control results and prepare the sample according to customer’s request, among other duties.

In this SelectScience article, we chat with Cauwenberghs to find out what kind of decisions she and her team made to overcome the challenges of producing these complex products, how the company was able to continually expand its offering, and gain some of the considerations keys. that must be made when shipping these products.

An influx of demand

When it comes to any form of manufacturing in the science industry, Cauwenberghs says the biggest challenge is keeping up with customer demand. “Customer expectations evolve, from their needs on the type of product, the yields needed or the quantity of oligos. Investigate the possibility of automation where we can, but this is not always possible due to the highly customized nature of our process.

Cauwenberghs goes on to explain how COVID-19 has resulted in an urgent need to handle both larger batches and larger quantities of products. “To meet these requirements in a short time, we had to manage the product quickly, look for new solutions and think outside the box,” she explains.

“We must regularly challenge and challenge our processes to ensure that we are optimizing and developing together in a way that meets the needs of our customers. »

Process improvement and optimization

To overcome these high-demand challenges, IDT emphasizes that manufacturers need to dig deep to see how and what they can improve, how they can be more efficient, and if automation is possible. Cauwenberghs develops this approach: “Our process is very organic. We continue to learn, improve and adapt to the needs of today’s market. We have been busy expanding our capacity, both with machines and with people. But we are always looking for other machines and techniques to update and improve our processes for the future. It is also very important for us to think ahead, plan and try to take steps to prepare for what we will need in the future.

Ensure safe delivery

When shipping delicate nucleic acid products for genomics applications such as next-generation sequencing, CRISPR genome editing, qPCR or RNA interference, Cauwenberghs says it’s crucial not to overlook the importance of having high quality shipping containers and packaging. “Making thoughtful choices in the packaging of our products helps to ensure that our product remains safe and reaches the customer in the same condition and with the same quality in which we shipped it.” She continues to point out that it is the small details such as ease of use, volume markings, dedicated location for labels and container specification information on the tube that can add value to the manufacturer. and to the customer.

Cauwenberghs explains that when shipping on dry ice, it’s important to make sure the product is kept in its frozen state when dissolved in buffer. It is imperative that the tubes are well sealed, waterproof and can withstand the low temperature of dry ice without cracking or breaking. “For the majority of our large scale research use only products as well as some of our medium and large scale GMP* products we ship to customers in the Labcon ProtectR® Tubes,” says Cauwenberghs. “These tubes are specifically designed to withstand dry ice and provide IDT with an excellent option for a standard shipping container for its product. They ensure that the high quality of the IDT product remains intact during transport. The dimensions and shape of the tubes conform to industry standards, which facilitates their integration into the scientific and research environments in which we operate.

Trust with supply chains

As one of the largest manufacturers of custom oligo products in the world, we asked Cauwenberghs what IDT’s top considerations are when choosing a vendor to work with. She responds, “Our main considerations fall into three main areas. First, we look at the quality of their products. Products must meet the specifications we require, in turn guaranteeing the best quality to our customers. Secondly, we are looking for reliable supply with good on time delivery. This is necessary to ensure that we can continue to produce at the same rate without having production stoppages due to stockouts. Finally, excellent communication and excellent customer support are essential to ensure that good decisions are made when buying and that help is available if questions arise.

For research only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, IDT does not intend to use these products in clinical applications and does not warrant their suitability or suitability for clinical diagnostic use. The purchaser is solely responsible for all decisions regarding the use of these products and any associated regulatory or legal obligations.

*GMP refers to products manufactured under ISO 13485:2016 QMS. The purchaser is solely responsible for all decisions regarding the use of these products and for all associated regulatory or legal obligations for their legal marketing.

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Michigan State University announces several new scientific research projects Fri, 27 May 2022 16:36:38 +0000

As one of the top research universities in the world, Michigan State University is constantly advancing, innovating, and changing the future of the world.

Here are some recent research efforts you may have missed.

MSU will increase its fleet of electric vehicles by nearly 370 Vehicles

The university has announced that it plans to convert 369 vehicles from its fleet of internal combustion engine vehicles to fully electric vehicles over the next decade.

This transition will move MSU moves closer to its goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050 as the change will reduce the university’s overall carbon footprint by 18,945 metric tons of carbon dioxide over the long term.

To reinvigorate the commitment, MSU has purchased 40 new electric vehicles and is relying on its electric charging network.

A new invention makes surgeries easier, faster and safer

MSU Professor and Head of Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery at MSU Veterinary Medical Center Dr Loic Dejardin invented and patented the Sacroiliac Dislocation Instrumentation System, or SILIS, and a minimally invasive Lucent Aiming Device, or MILAD.

The invention will make surgeries for injured sacroiliac joints – where the spine connects to the pelvis – more effective and efficient.

Sacroiliac joint dislocations and fractures, or SIL/Fs, are often found in dogs and cats that have sustained car injuries. Traditionally, these injuries can be treated by three methods: open reduction and internal fixation, invasive surgery with an inconsistent success rate, and a minimally invasive osteosynthesis procedure – where an intraoperative imaging modality called fluoroscopy creates an “X-ray film” of the surgical site, helping to avoid invasive surgery but exposing both patient and surgical team to ionizing radiation and ‘caged rest’, prolonging pain and suffering.

The SILAS-MILAD solves these problems because it requires only small incisions and the surgical team can walk away while x-rays are taken. In fact, the invention is so productive that it reduces SIL/F surgeries from 1-2 hours to 30 minutes.

PET scanner arrives at the Doug Meijer Medical Innovation Center

Michigan’s first total body PET/CT scanner arrived this month at MSU Radiopharmacy in the Doug Meijer Innovation Building.

The total body scanner scans cancer patients more efficiently than conventional imaging, with a head-to-toe scan lasting as short as 60 seconds – a stark contrast to the 40 minutes of traditional scanners.

BAMF Health will begin using the scanner in July to treat patients with prostate cancer and neuroendocrine tumors.

MSU researchers receive $3.7 million grant for autism research

A team of MSU researchers has received a five-year, $3.7 million grant from National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders study language in young children with autism.

The team is led by the Principal Investigator and Assistant Professor of Communication Science and Disorders at the College of Communication Arts and Sciences Courtney Venker. She is joined by Professor of Clinical Psychology Brooke Ingersoll, associate professor in human development and family studies ryan bowles and speech therapist Jenny Johnson.

The project is scheduled to begin in June and has the ultimate goal of improving the ability to offer clinical recommendations on how best to support language development in young children with autism.

Traditionally, adults are advised to simplify what they say to autistic children in order to create a clearer message. However, there is little evidence of the effects of this method.

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“The challenge is that as a field of speech-language pathology, we really don’t have a lot of empirical evidence or research to guide the decisions we make about how to talk to children,” Venker said. “The goal of this study is to gather the information we need to make these evidence-based decisions and to better individualize the way we speak, because we know that some young children with autism have very good language skills. …d “Other children don’t speak yet and may have trouble understanding what they hear. So we’re taking children through this range of spoken language levels and we’ll be able to see what works best for which child.

To conduct the research, Venker and his team will work with more than 100 young autistic children in MSU’s Lingo Lab.

“We are incredibly honored and humbled to have received this funding,” Venker said. “In practice, this means that we will be able to benefit from the support necessary to carry out this project which we believe is very important in ensuring that children have all the opportunities they deserve.”


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Florham Park students win first place in inter-school science research competition | Florham Park Eagle News Tue, 24 May 2022 15:20:00 +0000

FLORHAM PARK – Local students put the scientific method to the test in a recent competition. In the end, five of them outperformed their peers from across the region.

Students at Brooklake Elementary School and Ridgedale Middle School participated in the Fair for Emergent Researchers (FER), a national program that aims to increase diversity, accessibility, and communication in scientific research by mentoring students from 5th to 8th grade.

Students are tasked with coming up with their own science experiments, presenting their scientific findings, and answering questions from a panel of judges from different universities.

The fair took place virtually on Monday, April 30. Local students competed against students from New Jersey and New York, with six total schools participating, according to Florham Park Schools Superintendent Steven Caponegro.

Brooklake fifth-graders Justin Kim and Nathan Plumb won first place in the regional competition or their experiment on how lower pH levels in acids affect metal corrosion.

Fifth-grade student Allison Dolan won second place for her experiment on the effects of climate change on plant growth.

Additionally, Devina Chatterjee and Alaa Bennasser, also fifth graders from Brooklake, received honorable mention from the judges for their experiment in how sound travels.

The five students secured their place among some 78 competitors from grades 5 to 8.

“We are incredibly proud of all of our students who participated in this year’s FER program at Brooklake School,” Superintendent Caponegro said.

“It was the first year of its implementation and what a success it has been. Working with university professors and students from across the country has been a wonderful experience for our students and our district.”

He said “the help and supervision of fifth-year science teacher David Lechinger was instrumental in guiding our young researchers.”

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NSW’s world-class climate science research extends to WA Tue, 24 May 2022 05:42:00 +0000

The NSW Reference Climate Projection Modeling has been adopted across states, ensuring a consistent approach to climate science and information.

The new NSW and Australian Regional Climate Modeling (NARCliM) project now extends from Sydney to Perth.

The world-class project, led by NSW’s Department of Planning and Environment (DPE), includes ACT, South Australia and Western Australia and contributions from Murdoch University and the ‘University of NSW.

NARCliM uses the expertise of data scientists, climatologists, modellers and science communicators to help governments, businesses, scientists and the community better anticipate, manage and act on climate risks.

“The NARCliM partnership extends to the existing NSW and ACT Regional Climate Modeling Project which began in 2011 to develop high-resolution regional climate projections,” said Matthew Riley, NSW Director of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. ECD.

“This important work is helping NSW prepare for and build resilience to climate change. This gives us a better understanding of climate risks and natural hazards in New South Wales, now and in the future. NARCliM helps New South Wales address global climate change risks through the New South Wales Intergenerational Report and strategic plans such as the State’s Infrastructure Strategy.

“Through our work, we are also leading national efforts to ensure a consistent approach to developing regional climate projections.

“Interstate Partnerships recognizes the importance of collaboration between states and research organizations and the leadership, expertise and experience of NSW DPE in climate science.

“By working together, we can ensure that our stakeholders have the best available science and climate information to estimate the likely impacts of a changing climate and the opportunities for adaptation.”

Mr. Riley said the international best practice work of DPE’s leading climate scientists and their cross-jurisdictional partners provides critical information for regional decision-making.

“The Department’s climatologists are already working on the next generation of regional climate projections for southeastern Australia,” Mr Riley said.

“NARCliM2.0 will incorporate the latest global climate models from Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, as used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and capture climate change at higher resolutions. fine.

“NARCliM2.0 projections, which will use novel scientific methods to extrapolate data from global climate models, are expected to be available in 2023.”

Previous generations of NARCliM data are publicly available through the NSW Climate Data Portal and the AdaptNSW website.

/Public release. This material from the original organization/authors may be ad hoc in nature, edited for clarity, style and length. The views and opinions expressed are those of the author or authors.View Full here.

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Musenero speaks out as MPs call for more funding for scientific research Tue, 17 May 2022 07:00:00 +0000

The Ugandan Parliament has asked the government to provide more funds to scientific research institutes to develop local health solutions for the country, body of chimpanzees report.

The Science, Technology and Innovation Select Committee on COVID-19 Related Research for the year 2019-21, said that prior to the pandemic, institutions such as the Uganda Virus Research Isntitue (UVRI) already had a vaccine development plan in place but were unable to due to lack of funding.

“Similarly, the Joint Clinical Research Center (JCRC) has been at the forefront of groundbreaking research into the care and treatment of HIV/AIDS, cancer, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease. Among these are the ion gene studio s5 studies which are critical to the management of cancers in Uganda, gene therapy for the cure of HIV and sickle cell disease,” the lawmakers report states.

“The strategic plans of research institutions, although ambitious, are not sufficiently funded. This not only affects scientists, but also retards the progress of institutions in producing results that would reduce the country’s disease burden.

MEPs said the Presidential Science Initiative on Epidemics (PRESIDE), a brainchild of President Museveni led by Minister of Technology Dr Monica Musenero, “is one of the tools to bridge this funding gap, but must operate within existing laws and government structure to address duplication, remove ambiguity and provide administrative efficiencies.

When contacted, Musenero welcomed the MPs’ findings, saying adequate funding for research will go a long way in protecting the country from the adverse effects of future pandemics.

“I have spent decades building my professional portfolio as a scientist, with research and practice, for the benefit of Ugandans. I am pleased that the Parliamentary Committee made recommendations to support the work of PRESIDE as they realized how important he is to Ugandans and the rest of the world,” Musenero said.

“Many countries have turned away from vaccine development in Africa, but we should be proud as Ugandans to have undertaken it without hesitation and led by science and technology, with the same confidence as the rest of the world” , she added.

“It was very clearly evident that countries that start and pursue their own development suffer less than others – so we did what made sense and focused on rescuing our fellow Africans as quickly as possible.”

.In fiscal year 2O2O/21, a total of Shs 37.13 billion was used by the government for research and innovation activities related to COVID-19.

MPs later complained that the funds had been misappropriated under Musenero.

However, the MPs’ inquiry report showed that Shs 37 billion was broken down into operating expenses of the PRESIDE secretariat (Shs. 3.35 billion), purchases of equipment for COVID projects (Shs. 15.822.5 billion) and operational funds (Shs 15.245.5 billion) for scientists. carry out research under PRESIDE and Shs 2.74 billion for the Ministry of Science and Technology under the NRIP.

PRESIDE was established to provide technical and administrative oversight at the level of research project execution, review and approve funding requests, and verify project specifications, technical requirements, research relevance, and core competencies research teams.

The projects were driven by the need for the country to develop its capacity to manage the emerging COVID-19 pandemic and also to combat the hoarding of vaccines by developed countries.


However, MPs noted that several reallocations were made from one project to another without the ministry’s approval, indicating a lack of strong tracking mechanism and poor financial management.

“The President of PRESIDE authorized the transfer of resources between projects without following due process. These reassignments should have been approved by the Accounting Officer (Permanent Secretary of MoSTI). MoSTI also flouted the provisions of the MoU by releasing funds for PRESIDE without following the procedure provided therein,” the report states in part.

During its visits, the Committee noted that some of the equipment purchased had been delivered and in use; some had been delivered but were not yet installed, so not in utilize.

Other equipment had been installed but was awaiting staff training to put it into service because it was very technical.

Commenting on the MPs’ findings, Musenero observed: “There were many requirements that we faced as a new department or ministry, but operating under a new dispensation in difficult circumstances that Parliament recognises. We know the positives outweigh the negatives in this area and we will work on the recommendations.

The Committee said diversity in project selection was necessary and timely to ensure the country develops local solutions to address the challenges of COVID-19 diagnosis, treatment and development.

Musenero said that “Anyone who has had a patient with COVID-19 in the last two years understands how urgent and serious the work of scientists was to find solutions to save the lives of our friends and families, and people all over the world”.

On PCR and antibody diagnostic kits, MPs noted that plans to set up a production facility were underway with the required funding scheduled for the 202|/22 financial year.

“The Committee was told that a vaccine has been developed and has completed preclinical studies in ordinary mice, with data analysis in the final stages. It was further reported that the vaccine was found to be safe and elicited a strong immune response,” the report states in part.

Commenting on reports that PRESIDE has spent millions of shillings on mice for laboratory research, MPs observed that transgenic mice are being used in preclinical trials relating to COVID-19.

“This is because ordinary lab mice lack the ACE.2 receptor which is infected by SARS-CoY2 in humans and therefore must be genetically modified to express the desired characteristics.”

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Japanese Life Science Research Market Secures Protein Imprinting Products Tue, 17 May 2022 05:00:32 +0000 GenNext Technologies introduces protein fingerprinting products in Japan through Kiko Tech Co., LTD

GenNext Technologies, Inc. (GenNext), in partnership with Kiko Tech Co., Ltd., will provide Flash Oxidation (Fox™) protein fingerprinting systems to the Japanese life science research market.

GenNext introduced Fox-based HRPF to the market as a disruptive and inherently scalable approach to higher-order structure (HOS) analysis of proteins to increase efficiency and minimize adverse effects of biopharmaceutical drugs.

A GenNext HRPF study can answer scientific questions that previously required difficult, expensive and time-consuming hydrogen-deuterium exchange, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography or cryo-electron microscopy experiments. Alternatively, researchers should combine multiple techniques such as circular dichroism spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and light scattering analysis to generate less informative results than by conducting a single set of GenNext HRPF experiments. .

Scot R. Weinberger, CEO and Founder of GenNext, said, “We expect Japanese biopharmaceutical researchers to be receptive and adopt HRPF as the new standard to elucidate HOS, and we have found the perfect partner in Kiko Tech which is already active. in this domain. Region.”

“GenNext’s products move HOS beyond the limitations inherent in current techniques, enabling our customers to discover and develop biopharmaceuticals faster and with higher quality. Kiko Tech is excited to bring GenNext products to the Japanese life science community,” said Shigenobu Fukushima, Managing Director of KikoTech.

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Featured Computer Science Engineering and Research Students Mon, 16 May 2022 17:02:22 +0000

After graduating this month, Subha Lal plans to use the engineering skills she learned at Cal State Fullerton to help preserve the environment and advance technology for a better humanity. .

As a team leader for TitanSat, a forest fire detection system using satellite technology, she is on her way to changing things.

“This project was a labor of love for my team. We are all passionate about preserving California and ensuring that it remains a livable environment that is not completely overtaken by wildfires,” said Lal, CSUF Chapter President of Tau Beta Pi California Chi, a engineering honor society.

Photo TitanSat
The award-winning members of the TitanSat team, from left to right, are Joshua Guzman, Subha Lal and Raghu Bathala.

The Mechanical Engineering team won the award for Best Student Project Overall in the College of Engineering and Computer Science Student Projects Competition and Showcase on May 2. Other members of the TitanSat team are Eduardo Ayala, Raghu Bathala and Joshua Guzman, all senior graduates.

the showcase, held in person for the first time since the pandemic, featured 60 projects from all college disciplines, with 48 projects entered into the competition. Of these, the top 20 projects were selected for the competition. A panel of four industry judges selected 10 projects for recognition and monetary awards. Many student projects are also sponsored by the college’s industry partners, such as Disneyland Resorts, Edwards Lifesciences, Raytheon, RJE International and Mercury Systems.

Dean Susan Barua applauded the students for adjusting to working on their projects during the pandemic.

“Your hard work and dedication show,” Barua told the students. “I hope you will capitalize on your project-based experiences as you take the next step in your academic or professional career.”

TitanSat is a fourth-year legacy project, under the direction of Sagil James, associate professor of mechanical engineering. The project uses CubeSat technology, with the overarching goal of quickly detecting and preventing wildfire risk in California.

“The goal of this project is to design, fabricate and build a miniature cube-shaped satellite, or CubeSat, to observe the Earth’s surface to help detect fires,” said Lal, who will be a graduate. first-generation scholar. Her parents immigrated to the United States from India, spoke no English, and settled in Anaheim, where she grew up.

“The data captured will be used to help fire departments detect and control wildfires before they get out of hand,” she said. “Our research aims to help prevent serious damage from natural disasters and protect the environment.”

Lal faced obstacles getting into college, including understanding the admissions process and paying for college. She credits the support of her family and teachers, as well as her “hard work and determination,” for completing her studies at CSUF.

“My success is entirely due to my parents,” added Lal, whose father worked several jobs to support his family. “My family went from being farmers in a rural part of India to me, learning how to build a satellite and getting a college degree.”

‘Crime Spotter’ foils theft of catalytic converters

For their senior project, a team of electrical engineering students developed a new prototype to thwart the theft of catalytic converters – a crime on the rise among auto scammers.

“Crime Spotter” is a security system that uses signals from sensors that detect sound, motion and vibration, without the use of the internet, said Brian Fonseca, president of the Institute of Electrical’s CSUF chapter. and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Crime observation device
Senior graduates Brian Fonseca, Edison Chingay and John Daniyarov developed this new prototype, called the Crime Spotter, to thwart catalytic converter theft.

Catalytic converters contain precious metals and help reduce a car’s pollutants and toxic gases from the emissions system. The prototype system is installed under the car’s gear lever and is set in motion when the vehicle is parked.

“If a thief triggers the sensor while trying to steal the catalytic converter, a spray of liquid dye not only marks the thief, but the device, making it easily identifiable as stolen,” Fonseca explained.

The team, which also includes senior graduates Edison Chingay and John Daniyarov, won the award for Best Electrical Engineering Student Project. The students are supervised by David Cheng, professor of electrical engineering.

“Learning to make a product with constraints such as money, time, and scope helped us see engineering from an employer’s perspective,” Fonseca added. “Our future employers will appreciate our attention to detail when designing, testing and implementing a prototype.”

Designing a robot with a LegUp

A team of future mechanical engineers have developed a robotic system that moves differently than a traditional wheeled rover: they have designed a prototype with six legs that rotate simultaneously.

“The goal was to design a robot that could perform multiple walking gaits to access rough terrain and have a simplified and reliable control system with low electrical power requirements,” said senior graduate Kyle Skulski. .

The robot, dubbed LegUp, was inspired by Theo Jansen’s “Strandbeest” mechanism, in which the Dutch artist’s animated works were intended to be “a bridge between art and engineering”, explained Dylan Kunzmann , who also graduates this month.

“We took Jansen’s idea, focused on engineering, and applied it to the final frontier of space exploration. Our motivation was the excitement of NASA’s plans to go to the moon again, and soon,” Kunzmann added.

The team has spent the past two semesters building, assembling and testing their robot under the mentorship of Nina Robson, an associate professor of mechanical engineering. For their exceptional work, the team won the award for the best mechanical engineering student project. Other members of the graduate team are Matt Kim, Joshua Perez and Damian Marquez; also, students Brandon Arredondo and Brandon Rosales.

The LegUp team
LegUp faculty mentor Nina Robson, left to right, with Dylan Kunzmann, Brandon Arredondo, Kyle Skulski, Brandon Rosales, Damian Marquez, Joshua Perez and Minjae “Matt” Kim.

“We received this award not only because of our hard work, but because of our application of many different areas of mechanical engineering,” Kunzmann added.

The team also collaborated on the project with Boeing, one of the college’s industrial partners. Although not selected as a finalist, the team submitted a collaborative project proposal to NASA’s 2022 BIG Idea Challenge: Extreme Terrain Access for Mobility Platforms – the first time a CSUF team participated in the contest.

Building better bridges

Curtis Zimmerman
Curtis Zimmerman

Future civil engineers Curtis Zimmerman, Carlos De La Sancha and Abril Herrera won the award for Best Civil Engineering Student Project for their research project that uses zeolite-based materials to improve the integrity of concrete bridges.

The research project focuses on finding an optimal concrete composition to counter corrosion of rebar, which is used in bridge construction, said Zimmerman, who plans to graduate next year. .

Natural zeolite, a type of mineral derived mainly from volcanic ash, is plentiful, inexpensive and environmentally friendly – and adds stability to concrete, said the team’s research mentor Pratanu Ghosh, an engineering professor civil and environmental.

“This research is important because it would extend the life of bridges, roads and concrete structures exposed to corrosive environments. If implemented within industry, the economic benefits would be insurmountable,” Zimmerman said.

The three students received 2021-2022 Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowships from the U.S. Department of Transportation-Federal Highway Administration for their research efforts: Zimmerman, $10,000; De La Sancha, $7,000 and Herrera, $8,500.

State of California Fullerton beginning the celebrations will take place from May 23 to 26.

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Partnerships support science, research exchanges between NPS and Norway > United States Navy > News-Stories Tue, 10 May 2022 23:21:30 +0000

“Working together, sharing ideas and learning from each other is essential to achieving scientific breakthroughs,” Martinsen said.

“So far, the two main aspects of our collaborative research at the Naval Postgraduate School have been one, the study of certain classes of mathematical functions which are among the most fundamental ingredients in the construction of cryptosystems, and two , the study of ways to use artificial intelligence, particularly machine learning, to analyze the security of algorithms and ciphers,” Omland said.

According to Martinsen, their investigation of the security properties and vulnerabilities associated with Boolean functions expands their knowledge of cryptographic primitives and will help cryptographers design more secure systems in the future.

The capabilities of artificial intelligence and machine learning have made them invaluable tools for cryptographers, cryptanalysts, and signal intelligence operators.

“Machine learning shows great promise and is being rapidly adopted in a multitude of applications and industries,” Martinsen said. “Our adversarial machine learning research focuses on investigating machine learning vulnerabilities and developing safeguards that must be in place before the Department of the Navy can integrate this promising technology into its platforms. forms, systems and networks.

Omland noted the cyclical nature of this search, specifically pointing out the lack of a finish line. Instead, it’s a continuous and constant race between making and breaking cybersecurity systems.

While Omland’s arrival at the NPS marked the first time that NSM has sent a research scientist to the institution, the NPS’s partnership with Norway has a solid foundation.

“The Norwegian Navy (Special Forces) has been involved in the NPS defense analysis program for a long time, which is great,” said Martinsen, who added that he hopes to see this expand into other disciplines, especially cybersecurity and network security, in the future. .

“For Norway, being a small country with relatively few researchers, it is particularly important to collaborate with our allies, both in terms of research but also networking,” added Omland.

Martinsen is making its own history by expanding the university’s partnerships and collaborations with Norway. In March 2021, Martinsen was the first NPS PMP to receive a Fulbright US Scholar Scholarship to attend the Selmer Center for Secure Communications at the University of Bergen in Norway for the 2021-2022 academic year.

“I am joining with Norwegian research colleagues to undertake important research in cryptographic and secure communications,” Martinsen said.

Through academic and professional advancement and cross-cultural dialogue, the prestigious Fulbright scholarship fosters connections with 140 countries around the world. Program participants pursue higher education, conduct research or teach English abroad. Martinsen will travel to Norway for 90 days during the fellowship to focus on research in the field of cryptology.

“I hope that my operational experience as a former Navy cryptological warfare officer, as well as my academic and research skills as a tenured military professor for the NPS, will prove useful in the ongoing research at the ‘University of Bergen,’ he said. “I look forward to teaming up with Norwegian colleagues on cryptography and machine learning research of mutual interest.”

Omland mentioned that in all areas of research, it is essential to collaborate with new people, explore new ideas and problems, and seek new experiences.

Martinsen believes that exchange programs like these also allow us to connect on a human level by experiencing the peoples and culture of other countries, so that we can better understand and appreciate the points of view and the concerns of others, which, in turn, brings us closer together.

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